Gnawa diffusion depicts ancestry of Gnawa. This ethnic group was living in the North – West Africa, where Algeria and Morocco are now. Gnawa music mixes classical Islamic Sufism with pre-Islamic African traditions. Gnawa musicians usually refer to healing rituals in animism. They play deeply hypnotic trance music, call-and-response singing, hand clapping and cymbals called krakeb. Gnawa ceremonies use music and dance to evoke ancestral saints who can drive out evil, cure psychological ills or be a remedy for scorpion stings.